I am a PhD candidate at Université Paris-Saclay (CentraleSupélec) and at CIRED. I work on the interactions between energy transition policies and inequalities. The focus of my work is on the role of technical change for both households and industries to ensure a fair energy transition.
PhD in Economics, "Interactions between energy transition policies and inequality", Jan. 2019 - Oct. 2022 (Expected)
MSc in Environmental Economics, 2018
AgroParisTech (Université Paris-Saclay)
MSc in Industrial Engineering, 2018
CentraleSupélec (Université Paris-Saclay)
The distributional consequences of environmental policies are a major issue for the public acceptability of energy transitions, as the Yellow-vest demonstrations highlighted. Our objective is to assess the short and mid-term distributional impacts of policy packages on firms and households – rather than of single policy instruments - including carbon taxing, technology adoption subsidies and compensating lump-sum transfers. We offer insights on the fair transition promoted by the EU Fit-for-55 proposal with a case-study on two successive versions of the French low-carbon strategy. To that end, we develop an innovative numerical method that combines micro-simulation and macroeconomic modelling techniques. We explicitly model the heterogeneity of households’ behaviour and the role of the distribution of energy-efficient durable technologies — electric vehicles, energy-efficient housing — among consumers. Focusing technology adoptions on the largest energy consumers to maximise emission reductions reduces the discrepancy of impacts between rural and urban households. However, it aggravates the regressivity of carbon taxation if households are not rebated their carbon tax payments. Recycling schemes favouring poorer households are powerful means to offset the regressivity of carbon taxation in the short term. In parallel, policies supporting electric vehicles and thermal renovation are effective in reducing households’ tax payments at further horizons.
This paper is a micro-simulation of the adoption of compressed natural gas in heavy-duty vehicles based on real French data on industrial flows in 2018 from the automotive manufacturer Renault. We show that bio-sourced natural gas can be cost-effective for heavy-duty trucks and that detours to reach refuelling stations are key parameters for emissions. That is why fossil natural gas trucks emit more than diesel trucks in real conditions due to low-density of refuelling network.
Recycling the revenues of a Pigouvian tax to households can mitigate the distributional impacts of environmental policies and increase public support. This paper examines the existence of a backfire effect increasing aggregate emissions following the implementation of a carbon tax and the revenues’ recycling. We design a two-goods two-households model and find that heterogeneity increase the backfire effect on emissions. Given the price and income elasticities of demand, it may be optimal to recycle the entire carbon tax to the most or least energy-intensive household. We extend our framework using a microsimulation on French Households Budget Surveys from 1979 to 2010. We build a pseudo-panel of households – using income deciles and a mixed typology of pre-committed expenditure and income structure - and estimate long-term price and income elasticities for 14 goods (including 4 energy goods) with an Engel curve for each good. We estimate that a €158/tCO2 tax would bring a decrease of 10.9% in emissions, reduced by a uniform lump-sum rebate to a decrease of 6.2% in aggregated emissions. We conclude that this backfire effect is not a sufficient reason to prevent any compensation for the low-income households for the sake of emissions reduction. Indeed, a quarter of households increase their emissions in the face of a carbon tax that is then passed on, but the emissions thus emitted represent less than a tenth of the emissions of the 10th income decile. Restricting recycling to the first 7 income deciles would thus reduce the backfire by almost a quarter and mitigate equity-efficiency trade-off of recycling carbon taxes. Our study supports the consistency between reducing inequalities and reducing emissions.
Current growth theories do not allow for the study of the evolution of factor shares (at aggregate nor sectoral level) without strong assumptions on the elasticity of substitution between capital and labour. We propose a growth accounting framework that disentangles the factor-savings directions of technical change. We build this framework for two goods, capital and labour, and decompose production evolution between factor substitution, capital- and labour-saving technical change. The technical change is the shift from a Leontief production function to a new production function which is the convex envelope of two purely factor-saving deformations of the previous Leontief function. We apply this framework to the US between 1987 and 2019 using the KLEMS database. Therefore, we can decompose the annual output growth for all sectors into three components, namely technical progress L-saving, K-saving, and factor substitution - using the capital per worker ratio. Technical change has more influence on output growth than changes in the capital per worker ratio. This technical change is largely L- saving, although the intensity of K-saving technical change is higher than that of L-saving in more than half the sectors. This theoretical framework is validated by better predicting the evolution of the factors shares than is possible with a CES function calibrated on the same database.
Task Leader in “EUSL-Capacity” European project (Europe Sri Lanka Capacity Building in Energy Circular Economy) Partners: KTH Stockholm, Univ. of Twente, CentraleSupélec, Univ. of Moratuwa, Univ. of Ruhuna, Open University of Sri Lanka, Univ. of Peradeniya.
The Europe Sri Lanka Capacity Building in Energy Circular Economy Project aims to facilitate digital education, with the high-level input of these well renowned EU universities, to create a new Master’s program on Energy Technology that isprimarily focused on the energy-related challenges in Sri Lanka. The project is a partnership with three Universities from the European Union and four universities from Sri Lanka.
Evaluation of the distributive impacts of the National Low-Carbon Strategy (CNRS contract n°165267)
ESSEC x Université Paris-Saclay (CentraleSupélec), Master of Data Science and Business Analytics-M1, 15h (en) - Fall 2019
Weekly intensive course - Creation/In charge/Lectures/Tutorials
Université Paris-Saclay (CentraleSupélec), Bachelor of Engineering-L3, 35h (fr) - Spring 2019, 2020, 2021
Université Paris-Saclay, (CentraleSupélec), Master of Engineering-M1, 4.5h (fr) - Fall 2020, 2021
Paris-Diderot University, Master of Applied Economics-M2, 3h (fr) - Spring 2021, 2022
Institut Polytechnique (ENSTA), Master of Engineering-M1, 3h (fr) - Spring 2021, 2022
Université Paris-Saclay (Univ. Versailles-St-Quentin-en-Yvelines), Master in Nuclear Energy-M1, 9h (en) - Spring 2020, 2021, 2022
Université Paris-Saclay, (CentraleSupélec), Master of Engineering-M1, 21h (en & fr) - Fall 2018, 2019, 2020
Université Paris-Saclay, (CentraleSupélec), Master of Engineering-M1, 9h (fr) - Fall 2019, 2020, 2021
Université Paris-Saclay, (CentraleSupélec), Master of Engineering-M1, 9h (fr) - Fall 2018
Université Paris-Saclay, (CentraleSupélec), Bachelor of Engineering-L3 (fr) - Fall 2018 (27h), Spring 2019 (6h)
Climate change economics / Introduction to externalities – Price and quantity approaches / Ecosystem services / Impact pathway approach